When choosing a scripting language, keep the following considerations in mind.
• The current language used for development. For example, if a company is already using Python, you may want to explore utilizing Python as well. After all, learning a new language is never simple, especially when the testers are unfamiliar with it.
• Local developer support for the programming language. Testers should think about utilizing the language that developers use. Furthermore, it is simple to provide in-house support for a language that is being utilized.
• If you're new to the process, it's best to start using Python, Ruby, or another script-friendly language. It necessitates minimal code and can be developed fast and easily.
• Although Java is the most popular language, its grammar is a little difficult to implement in scripts.
Unfortunately, for most software projects, the answer is usually whichever language your tech lead/test architect is fluent in. It's shocking (and disheartening) to discover how few programming languages are available to this generation of programmers. If a tester/programmer is only familiar with one programming language, Andrew Hunt and David Thomas' famous (and must-have) book The Pragmatic Programmer — From Journeyman to Master is a must-read.
Ruby is my response. After 9 years of programming in Java, I fell in love with the Ruby language in 2006. Programmers are often fixated/biased on a certain language. Because my Selenium Recipes Book series includes all five languages, I am probably more objective than others. My thoughts are based on my experiences writing (and, more importantly, maintaining) hundreds of test scripts in each language binding.
Before delving into these five language options, I want to be clear: each language can function; the question here is which one is superior.
It's useless since it's not a scripting language. There's a reason we call them test scripts. People came to me for help salvaging their failed Java projects since I was regarded as a 10x Java programmer (I seldom needed a mouse when writing in Intellij IDEA, utilising keyboard shortcuts). I still use Java for certain app development, but not for functional test automation.
2. C#, as above (not a scripting language).
4. Python. Python, being a programming language, lends itself nicely to test automation. Python is also widely used. However, it is more constrained than Ruby, as indentation and parentheses are necessary for Python 3, which annoys non-python programmers. Remember that automated functional test scripts are intended for the entire team. Furthermore, according to my tests, Python binding is roughly 10% slower than Ruby binding.
Ruby is a compact, powerful, and beautiful programming language with a long history as a test automation scripting language. Watir, for example, was established in 2001 and is still a popular framework today (now based on Selenium WebDriver). Please keep in mind that “Watir” stands for ‘Web Application Testing in Ruby,' demonstrating the authors' enthusiasm for Ruby. (The same may be said about the well-known Ruby on Rails web framework.)
I know that my words would not persuade you to learn Ruby, so I took a phrase from the classic Agile Testing book:
Do you think that the adjectives in the quotation are key characteristics of a successful scripting language? Now, attempt to evaluate Java using the criteria listed above; you'll see what I mean.
For many, UI test automation is new information that must be learned. (Performing a simple ‘hello world' example automated testing is straightforward, and anyone can do it.) However, without a competent mentor, mastering actual UI test automation is incredibly difficult. (For example, while everyone talks about Selenium automation, it is seldom utilised for regression testing.) So, if a tester/programmer lacks learning aptitude and does not attempt Ruby, the chances of mastering UI test automation are quite small.
Quite often, programmers (usually tech leaders) who fail test automation criticise the 'Selenium WebDriver' framework rather than their lack of test automation skills and the incorrect language choice. Please read False ‘Selenium WebDriver Cons’.
If I had to select only one term to describe why I chose Ruby for writing automated tests, it would be It's entertaining. I'll leave it up to you to figure it out.